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Goodman Community Center

EPA-funded report recommends pollutant testing for Madison community center

EPA-funded report recommends pollutant testing for Madison community center

Photo: View from inside the Goodman Center’s Ironworks Cafe, looking out to the Kipp factory loading docks.

A report from the Center for Public Environmental Oversight (CPEO), funded by EPA to provide technical assistance to communities on vapor intrusion, strongly recommends comprehensive vapor intrusion testing at the Goodman Community Center on Madison’s near east side, to rule out possible exposures to volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) among youth, pregnant women, seniors, and others who use the center.

In the report, CPEO Executive Director Lenny Siegel recommends that, given the known groundwater plume with high levels of VOCs—particularly tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene  (TCE)—beneath the industrial area where the Center is located, comprehensive vapor intrusion testing should be conducted there. TCE exposures are of particular concern for pregnant women, because birth defects (fetal heart malformations) can occur when women are exposed to TCE for even brief periods of time (from 1 day to three weeks).

In a Wisconsin State Journal article by Steve Verburg about Siegel’s report, DNR spokesperson Jim Dick discounted concerns about the Goodman Center. He explained that “the DNR never required vapor testing in the Goodman center just north of Madison-Kipp because shallow ground water flows from the plant to the south-southwest.” Yet maps in Kipp’s March 2017 semi-annual report contradict DNR’s claim, clearly showing Kipp’s VOC plume originating on the northern part of the Kipp site and flowing north under the Goodman Center. [1],[2]

Since the consultant map in the report above (see pg. 121), oddly, only depicted PCE, not other VOCs in the Kipp plume, and doesn’t show where buildings sit over the plume, we enhanced the map, to depict building locations and levels of trichloroethylene (TCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) in wells (numbers are from the semi-annual report tables, see link above).

The map shows that the VOC plume under Goodman is shallow, countering DNR’s claim to the contrary. To understand the risk of vapor intrusion to the center, however, it is important to know the VOC levels at the water table, which is also very shallow there. The dotted lines depicted on the cross-section map linked to above indicate that actual VOC levels in shallow groundwater very near or under the center are unknown, because they have not tested there.  Monitoring Well 26, depicted on the map, is actually several hundred feet to the east of the center, and therefore VOC levels there are irrelevant to assessing vapor intrusion risks to the center. Yet DNR officials have used data from this well to assess vapor intrusion risks to the center–and now are no longer even assessing VOCs at that well (see below).

Goodman Center is housed in the old Kupfer Ironworks foundry, across a city bike path from Madison-Kipp Corp, which has operated in the Atwood neighborhood for 115 years. After VOCs were discovered in groundwater at Kupfer around 1986-87, and then under the factory site just to the west of Kipp (Brassworks) in 1993, extremely high levels of VOCs were discovered from 1994-1997 on the northern most tip of the Kipp factory, just across from the community center.

The northern part of the Kipp site has historically had alarmingly high levels of VOCs—including up to 6.4 million parts-per-billion PCE in soils off the northeast corner of the factory across from Goodman—and also very high levels in groundwater there. While limited soil remediation was done in a small part of this area in the 1990s, reducing soil VOC levels somewhat, significant soil and groundwater contamination remains there. A groundwater extraction well was installed on city property just south of the bike path sometime in the 1990s, but nobody at DNR or the city seems to know whether or not it ever extracted contaminated groundwater. Read more about this mysterious history here.

In dismissing vapor intrusion concerns at the community center, DNR’s Dick also explained that “ground water monitoring near the Goodman center hasn’t indicated a need for vapor testing in the community center. In fact, as some monitoring wells found less contamination in shallow ground water in recent years, the DNR has been requiring less testing for toxic vapors around the Madison-Kipp plant, and less ground water monitoring.”

This is a disingenuous statement. Again, there has in fact been no recent groundwater monitoring very near or under the center—though such monitoring is essential to assess the potential for vapor intrusion there.[3] Further, Mr. Dick’s statements about requiring less testing of vapors and groundwater are disturbing, not reassuring; they reflect the fact that DNR allowed Kipp to phase out the shallow groundwater and vapor testing most essential to understanding whether vapor intrusion could be occurring in the center and in nearby homes.

Now that, with DNR’s approval, Kipp has greatly reduced this important ongoing monitoring—and has eliminated monitoring at some shallow wells and vapor probes altogether—nobody will know whether vapor levels could be rising near the community center.

The Goodman Center also recently purchased the Brassworks factory to renovate as an addition for center activities. As the east-west cross-section map linked above shows, groundwater with significant VOC levels is also under this building. While three groundwater and three soil vapor samples were taken at this site, Siegel argues that this testing wasn’t enough to rule out vapor intrusion in the building. Both center locations should be comprehensively tested for vapor intrusion, he says.

“The city should step up to the plate and protect its citizens since the DNR is not doing so. The Goodman Center serves youth, adults and seniors, in buildings sitting over a huge VOC plume that originates at Madison-Kipp (and runs all the way to Milwaukee Street to the north and many hundreds of feet in all other directions). Their health may be impacted, as well as center employees’ health,” said Jim Powell, Midwest Environmental Justice Organization (MEJO) board member.

“Since the City of Madison owns the bike path between Goodman and Kipp, and also leases the land to Kipp for its Fair Oaks Avenue factory and the raingarden that receives the factory’s stormwater pollution, it should ask Goodman to conduct these tests. The City’s own properties may be negatively impacting people’s health.”

Siegel met with citizens dealing with vapor intrusion situations

 In June, Siegel also met with citizens from three Madison neighborhoods dealing with known or potential vapor intrusion problems, but just issued his USEPA-funded report this month. Prior to issuing his report, Siegel reviewed data related to these sites, provided to him by MEJO, which has gathered thousands of pages of documents on the sites from DNR and other agencies.

Several people who met with Mr. Siegel live near Madison-Kipp and have vapor mitigation systems on their homes intended to prevent VOC vapors from entering them. Madison-Kipp agreed to install these systems and maintain them for five years as part of a class action lawsuit settled in 2013.

Residents are concerned about whether these systems are effectively protecting them from vapor intrusion, and who will maintain the systems over the long term. They have good reason for concern. Mr. Siegel’s report highlights that appropriate testing to assure that these systems are sufficiently reducing chemical vapors into homes was not done after the home mitigation systems were installed. Also, there is no plan in place to maintain and monitor these systems after Kipp’s responsibility to maintain them ends in 2018.

“I would like to know that my system is working properly and toxic vapors are no longer seeping into my home,” said Sharon Helmus, who is 78 and lives just feet from Madison-Kipp’s aluminum melting stacks.  “Who will monitor my system after 2018? I certainly don’t know how to do it and can’t afford to pay someone else to do it.”

One person living next to Kipp who was part of the lawsuit has reported that her system has not been monitored at all by Kipp or anyone else since it was installed in 2012. This appears to violate the terms of the civil lawsuit settlement–but who is going to investigate? Neither the city, county or state will; and one of the lawsuit attorneys now works for industry and is under no obligations to his former clients.

Below, home of Sharon Helmus (on the right) just feet from the Kipp factory’s aluminum melting stacks

 

Siegel met with alders to discuss what the city could do

 MEJO’s Jim Powell agrees with recommendations in Siegel’s report. “The DNR, or state and local health departments, should ensure that post-mitigation testing is done to make sure the systems are working properly, and that there is a plan for maintenance of the systems over the long-term,” he said.

Siegel also met in June with some Madison alders to discuss ways that Mountain View, California, where he is vice mayor, addresses vapor intrusion, and steps Madison could take based on his community’s model, which is commended by EPA.

“The city should develop a method of reviewing potentially dangerous vapors from intruding into our buildings, along the lines of Mountain View’s. Vapor intrusion can expose us to long-term risks of chronic disease,” said Alder David Ahrens, who met with Siegel in June.

Alder Samba Baldeh added, “The City should map all VOC plumes in the city, especially on the eastside/Isthmus where contamination seems widespread, and develop strategies to address potential vapor intrusion problems comprehensively, including broad areas over plumes, not just one site at a time.”

Other possible aspects of broad city environmental policy could include requiring employers to notify building users that it is an environmental response site, where known contaminants are being mitigated and provide website references for more information.

“The city should develop an environmental policy to protect public health and the environment,” said Alder Rebecca Kemble. “At every decision-making level, alders and committee members should have as much information as possible in front of them, including all investigative reports about known and suspected contaminants on any given site in the city.”

“Unfortunately, at many sites, groundwater VOC testing done by consultants hired by property owners and/or developers is not comprehensive enough to adequately assess whether or not there could be a potential vapor intrusion problem in buildings constructed there, or existing buildings,” said Powell. “It is in the interests of the property owners and developers not to find a groundwater VOC problem and potential for vapor intrusion, since these are expensive problems to deal with.

“While the state DNR is responsible for enforcing federal and state environmental regulations, it is in many cases failing to do so,” said Powell. “The City of Madison also has authority to protect people’s health and the environment. The City owns a lot of land that is used for industry and is available for redevelopment. It can set high standards for environmental cleanup and public health protection on those sites. Additionally, through its authority as the stormwater management utility, it can monitor and regulate stormwater discharges of toxic chemicals into local waterways by industry and other polluters. Unfortunately, it rarely does so.”

Siegel feels that Madison could develop its own approach to reviewing and addressing vapor intrusion at sites in the city in order to protect its citizens in cases when the DNR is not doing so.

[1] Historically, investigative reports for Kipp have said that the shallow and intermediate groundwater under Kipp is going south, and the deeper groundwater is going north. However, DNR officials have stated that the shallow groundwater “sloshes around” in all directions at various times, depending on a number of factors including rainfall, lake levels, pumping of nearby Water Utility wells, and other factors.

[2] Also, if the shallow and intermediate groundwater is flowing south/southwest, why haven’t groundwater and vapors to the south of Kipp been tested? There are many homes and businesses to the south and southwest of the factory. In the 1990s, the DNR actually planned to install wells on properties to the south of Kipp, but they were never installed. MEJO’s repeated questions about this to DNR over the years have been ignored. Is DNR afraid of what they might find?

[3] As the CPEO report notes, in 2001 a few groundwater samples near the Goodman building found some VOCs, including 14 ppb PCE in a sample right next to where the Goodman’s Ironworks Café is now. The samples were likely fairly shallow, but reports did not clarify depths.

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Kipp PCBs continue to pollute area along Isthmus bike path, even after multiple remediations

Kipp PCBs continue to pollute area along Isthmus bike path, even after multiple remediations
 madison.com

The company expects to find a solution soon, but critics say government regulators have failed to properly investigate the troubled industrial site. More…

(A diagram of PCB levels found along Kipp’s storm drainage pipe is below. See the full PCB report by Kipp’s consultants here.)

 

High PCB levels

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PCB Excavation Along Bike Path next to Madison Kipp–Enjoy Photos!

PCB Excavation Along Bike Path next to Madison Kipp–Enjoy Photos!

A previous post shared details about the excavation of soils contaminated with high levels of PCBs, from October 6-9, 2015, along the bike path between Madison Kipp Corporation and the Goodman Center.

Here’s what the excavation looked like…enjoy! (sorry about the strange sizes, we had some formatting problems…)

Excavation begins, October 6, on the east end of the raingarden…

Earth First Advanced Waste drops off a PCB dumpster across from the splash pad…(Yes, Earth First came to Kipp!!) 

The bike path is a busy place! Neighbors sit at the splash pad bench and enjoy the show…

Children pick vegetables near the excavation (red PCB dumpster behind them)…

A neighborhood mom whose children are playing at Goodman tells Earth First Advanced Waste they are “killing the earth” and does a ritual to “take the land back” and “release the bad energy”

A dust monitor is in place (good step in the right direction….but is this monitor to assess dust exposures to the excavation workers? Or people on the bike path? Either way, it seems to be the wrong kind of monitor and in the wrong place….).

Dust barriers put up on 2nd day of excavation (Good, finally!! But won’t some fine dust go up and over them? )

A “Best Waste Solutions” truck behind the excavation spews smoke (oops!)…

Are there really no PCBs on the right side of this fence, next to the bike path?? This area has not been tested. Hmmm…..

Yellow “caution” tape was put up around dust barriers on October 8

The dust monitor concentration on the outside of the excavation dust fence read 19 µg/m3 at 10 am on October 8 (time-weighted average of 12 µg/m3)…

Soils with the highest PCB levels, along about an 80 foot stretch across from splash pad, were excavated right to the edge of the bike path, including the jogging path…

A couple hotspots in the raingarden, excavated on October 6, were re-seeded and covered with hay…

A PCB hotspot in the grassy area along the far eastern end of the bike path was “capped” with a few inches of clean soil (and later fenced off)…

 

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More PCBs on city bike path to be excavated October 6-9; City of Madison says no warning signs needed

More PCBs on city bike path to be excavated October 6-9; City of Madison says no warning signs needed

In June 2015, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) of up to 680 ppm—orders of magnitude above the residential (0.2 ppm) and industrial (0.7 ppm) direct contact standards—were found in soils next to the highly used Capital City bike path and just across from the Goodman Community Center’s new splash pad. The source of the PCBs, which likely have been in soils along the bike path for decades, is Madison Kipp Corporation. Test results are depicted on this map; the full report is here.[1]

These high PCB levels were found much closer to the city bike path and adjacent jogging/walking path than those found in previous sampling in the city raingarden that began in spring 2014 (which uncovered PCB levels up to 550 and 1020 ppm–see here and here)[2] Soils along the bike path also contain other toxic contaminants, including heavy metals, PCE (tetrachloroethylene), PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and more.

A large volume of scientific studies shows that long term PCB exposures are associated with neurological, endocrine, immune system, and a variety other health problems. In February 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified PCBs as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1)[IARC, 2013]. More information about the health effects of PCBs is here and here. Also, PCBs are usually contaminated with dioxins and furans, which are even more toxic than PCBs.

The June PCB findings were not shared with the public and, as of Sept. 22, 2015, were not posted on the DNR website.[3] No signs have ever been posted along the bike path about this significant contamination.

Neighborhood residents, frustrated by the refusal of city and state officials to post warning signs along the bike path, posted their own signs in mid-September 2015 (see photo below). The signs were taken down a day after they were posted. Who took them down? Madison Kipp? The city?

These highly contaminated soils will be excavated October 6-9, 2015. Soils with PCBs at such high levels would in most cases be excavated immediately, but city and state officials decided not to excavate while the splash pad was open, because they know excavation will disrupt contaminated soils, releasing PCBs into surrounding air and onto nearby soils and pavement—exposing toddlers and children playing at the splash pad just feet away, with mothers (often holding babies) looking on.[4]

Even though they decided to leave the soils with high PCB levels in place all summer, neither DNR nor City of Madison officials felt that signs alerting people to the high levels of PCBs along the bike path were warranted during this time. They fenced part of the PCB contaminated area off, but left the jogging path open.[5]

City staff said they do not plan to post any signs before or during the upcoming excavation in October, assuring us they will make sure the area is “secure.” How will the area be “secured” to prevent the release of PCB contaminated dusts into surrounding air, soils, and bike path during the three-day (or more) excavation?[6]

The photograph below shows the dust clouds released when soils were excavated for the construction of the Goodman splash pad last summer/fall; soils under the splash pad are known to have high levels of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heavy metals, and numerous other toxic contaminants (likely including PCBs, though they haven’t been tested)–see here. Children were playing beneath this dust cloud when this photo was taken.  Nothing was done to by city or state officials, or Goodman Center leaders, to prevent this.

Though the city plans to communicate about the upcoming excavation with the select group of people on the neighborhood association listserve, most parents of children using the splash pad and bike path, and/or whose children play daily at the Goodman Community Center, including many minority, low-income parents from the Darbo Worthington area, are not on this listserve and will continue to be unaware of high PCB levels right next to where their children play. Most people walking, jogging, biking, walking pets, and pushing strollers along the bike path are also not on this listerve, and are therefore in the dark about what they could be collecting on their shoes and bike/stroller wheels—and what their pets might be ingesting and gathering on their fur—and bringing into their homes.

Why are city officials unwilling to post warning signs, though they definitely have the authority to do so on their own property? What is the harm? Signs could be made with almost no cost to the city.

Perhaps city officials do not want the public to be aware of how contaminated this highly-used city property is? Or perhaps the city is protecting Madison Kipp Corporation, the source of the PCBs?

Maybe the City of Madison is worried about its own liabilities? If so, isn’t it sad that city government’s concerns about its liabilities are a higher priority than protecting public health? Doesn’t the city have an ethical responsibility to let people know about high levels of toxic contaminants on public property, so they can choose to avoid contaminated areas if they want to?

Apparently the City of Madison does not think so.

[1] Full lab reports here.

[2] The raingarden PCB saga goes back many years. See here and here for more about the raingarden PCB history.

[3] In November 2014, a DNR website post said “clean-up activities for the rain garden along the bike path have been completed” and “Soil sampling confirmed that no further action was necessary” on city property. Obviously, this is not the case, but the DNR has chosen not to post any further updates for the public (as of Sept. 22 2015).

[4] This begs the question: Why didn’t they test and excavate these PCBs before opening the splash pad?

[5] DNR officials said that even though PCBs were found just 4 inches down right next to the jogging path, there is no chance of exposures to those on the path. However, surface soils on the jogging path were not tested at all so this is just speculation.

[6] Why don’t they block off the bike path during the excavation?

 

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Madison-Kipp Clean Air Act violations: MEJO response to Kipp CEO

Madison-Kipp Clean Air Act violations: MEJO response to Kipp CEO

Madison-Kipp Corp President/CEO Tony Koblinski responded to our post regarding the EPA consent decree for his company’s Clean Air Act violations. Here is our response:

Dear Mr. Koblinski: We offer the following responses to your comments in hopes of providing some clarity as to why we are dissatisfied with the resolution of the EPA’s Notice of Violation (NOV) to Madison-Kipp Corp.

Koblinski: “This NOV is not a new matter.  It was issued to us September 12, 2012.”  

MEJO Response: Right—these violations are not new. They go back many years. For more on Kipp’s air pollution issues since 1990, and the community’s struggle to address them, see here and here.

The EPA violations occurred from 2007 (and before) through at least 2013. Kipp’s lawyers negotiated with EPA for 2.5 years after the initial violation was sent to them on Sept. 12, 2012.

In 2008, a DNR air pollution compliance engineer notified Kipp that they were using the wrong emissions factors, underestimating the stack discharges and violating their permit. However, after this engineer passed away and another one was assigned, the DNR continued to allow Kipp to use the wrong emissions factors for years, even after the 2012 NOV from EPA was issued. In 2013, DNR found Kipp in full compliance with air regulations, even while the company was still using the wrong emissions factors. DNR South Central Air Management Supervisor Tom Roushar explained in fall 2013 (about a year after the EPA NOV was issued) that it was acceptable that Kipp continued to use the 2001 emissions factors through 2013 even though their permit specified that they should use the higher 2007 emissions factors. He felt that EPA’s allegations were unsubstantiated (though oddly, he claimed not to have seen the NOV).

Koblinski: “It does not allege that we violated our emissions limits, but rather that we did not have adequate controls on our data recording, emissions factors, record keeping, calibration and plant signage.  These are technical issues which we have taken very seriously, but at no time have we exceeded our permitted emissions limits.”  

MEJO Response: Kipp’s estimated levels of air emissions, a key basis on which agencies assess regulatory compliance, are almost entirely based on the company’s own data recording, records keeping, and/or the emission factors they use. Because Kipp kept bad (or no) records on important processes that affect emission levels, and/or used old, incorrect emissions factors, inaccurate emission estimates were reported to the DNR, EPA, and the public for over five years. These are not just minor “administrative” or “technical” issues.

In 2012, Representative Chris Taylor asked the DNR to require Kipp to measure the actual emissions from its stacks. The DNR responded by saying that the extensive recordkeeping required of Kipp was superior to testing emissions. Shortly thereafter, the EPA issued its notice of violation because Kipp was neither conducting its required recordkeeping nor filing correct reports.

Here’s one example of the consequences of using an incorrect emissions factor. Because Kipp used a 2001 emissions factor for chlorine that was 5.8 times lower than its 2007 permit required it to use, chlorine wasn’t reported at all on several air emissions inventories between 2007 and 2012 even though it should have been; incorrect chlorine emissions factors produced inaccurate chlorine emissions estimates that were lower than DNR reporting thresholds. Stack tests done in 2014 as part of the recent NOV showed that Kipp was emitting almost 12 times more chlorine than the 2001 emissions factor they used from 2007 to 2013 predicted they would emit.

Kipp also used 2001 emissions factors for dioxins through at least 2012, even though a more appropriate stack test in 2007 showed dioxin/furan emission levels orders of magnitude above the levels found in 2001 tests. Dioxins (and closely related compounds, called furans) are highly toxic at extremely minute levels—much, much more toxic than chlorine and even the tetrachoroethylene (PCE) Kipp workers dumped onto the ground for years. Even though Kipp stack tests in 2001, 2003, and 2007 showed that Kipp emitted dioxins/furans (and emissions factors increased with each test), none of Kipp’s air inventories have ever reported dioxin/furan emission levels, because using the old emissions factor kept the estimated emission levels under the DNR’s reporting limit. DNR was either oblivious to Kipp’s method of keeping their emission off the public air inventories, or decided that this was acceptable.

Kipp was also found in violation by EPA for not maintaining accurate records of its “Hazardous Air Pollutant” (HAP) emissions, which include a number of other highly toxic chemicals emitted from the factory.

Again, these record-keeping and reporting issues are not minor technical matters. Given the decades of community concerns about dioxins, chlorine, and other hazardous air pollutant emissions from Kipp, and hundreds of complaints to government agencies about strong chemical odors and health effects in the neighborhood, these reporting issues are very problematic, whether or not emission levels exceeded regulatory limits (which studies show, for many of the contaminants emitted Kipp, are too high to adequately protect public health).

Considering the discovery of extremely high levels of contaminants in soil and groundwater at Kipp, is it any surprise that Kipp did not maintain the records needed to show it complied with air pollution control laws? Pollutant levels reported to the DNR for air inventories are the only way citizens have to know what hazardous pollutants Kipp is emitting and at what levels. Kipp knows that and has worked hard to keep these chemicals off air inventories, in part, by using incorrect emissions factors. According to DNR, in 2007/2008, industries lobbied hard to not be required to report emissions below reporting limits (as they had been before). DNR allowed this.

Violations led to increases in actual emissions

Some of Kipp’s violations likely led to actual higher emissions of hazardous air pollutants, not just incorrect emissions estimates. The lubricant used to make aluminum castings is evaporated and partially burned, then exhausted through the roof. Rather than actually capturing and controlling the die lubricant emissions, diluting the die lubricant is the method required by DNR for reducing emissions from the die casting process. One of the EPA violations against Kipp was not diluting the die lubricants as much as required in its permit, resulting in higher VOC and other toxic emissions from die casting.

Other violations included not recording how much they diluted the die lubricant and/or not calibrating their die lubricant mixing equipment correctly—in other words, not following the emissions control method they are required by the permit to follow. These die casting violations are not minor technical issues. The “waxy/oily/burnt” and “metallic” smells neighbors have complained of for years are primarily die casting emissions. According to EPA, the top eight Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) air releases reported from aluminum die casting industries in the U.S. are: aluminum (fume or dust), trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, zinc (fume or dust), copper, hexachloroethane, glycol ethers, and zinc compounds.

Actual emissions from Kipp’s die casting processes have been measured only sporadically and incompletely over the years inside the plant—and not for many years. In 1994, an OSHA inspector measured “oil mists” and “release agents” from die casting processes made up of metals and numerous organic compounds, including: aliphatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, acetic acid, organic acids, butyrated hydroxyl toluene, long chain aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, propylene glycol, hydroxytriethylamine, methyl styrene, 1-2-2—methoxy-1-methyl-ethoxy-1-methylethoxy-2- propanol, and several “unidentified compounds.” The “condensate of mold release agent” contained “50% gray metallic flakes” made up of lead, aluminum, zinc, copper, and iron as well as “small particles, oily or greasy substances” and “brown particles.”

The 2001 “Madison Kipp Corp Exposure Assessment,” done by the Madison Public Health Department listed the following emissions measured above Kipp’s die casting machines in 1998: 1, 1, 1 trichloroethane, benzene, toluene, 1, 2 butadiene, hexane, ethanol, acetone, and several “unknown alkanes or alkenes.” Other reports and studies indicate that aluminum die casting emissions may also contain other very toxic chlorinated compounds such as chlorinated paraffins, PCBs, and dioxins/furans (as far as we know, these compounds have never been tested for in Kipp’s die casting emissions, inside the plant or from the stacks/vents).

During the 2011 inspection by EPA, the inspector noted “hazy air” in the die casting areas in both the Atwood and Fair Oaks facilities. This “haze” is the “oil mist” or die cast emissions, made up of many of the hazardous air pollutants listed above. Workers inhale this mist. It goes out open doors and windows and into roof vents and stacks uncontrolled. That’s why the odors are so strong in the neighborhood on some days. Again, Kipp has never characterized the chemical components of their die cast stack emissions or reported them to the DNR, nor has DNR required them to do so.

Prior to 1995, the “oily mist” from die casting was primarily vented through the doors and windows into adjacent backyards. At that time, after hundreds of neighborhood complaints, Kipp installed many roof vents sending the die casting fumes and the waxy odor further through the neighborhood. Only in 2007 did DNR recognize that Kipp was violating the 1971 air quality standards and required taller stacks rather than simple roof vents, in order to disperse the die casting emissions higher and further away. Current emissions factors for die casting are based on stack tests done in 1994 (that did not assess chemical components of the emissions).

Die casting emissions deposit on Kipp’s side walls and roofs, are washed off during rain/snow, and go into the storm drain system and eventually to the raingarden and/or Starkweather Creek and then Lake Monona. Kipp doesn’t test the chemicals in its stormwater runoff, so we don’t know what contaminants are going into the raingarden and the already highly impaired Starkweather Creek and Lake Monona.

Koblinski: “Under the direction of the EPA we completed new stack testing in May of 2014 and further verified that we operate within a fraction of our allowable emissions levels.”

MEJO Response: In the May 2014 EPA tests, the Atwood aluminum furnace stack emissions were tested for chlorine, hydrochloric acid, PM (particulate matter) and PM-10 (particulate matter ten microns or less in size). The Fair Oaks stacks were tested only for PM/PM-10. The smaller, more toxic components of particulate matter (PM 2.5) were not assessed at stacks from either facility. Dioxins/furans were not tested. Aluminum salts were not tested. No other hazardous pollutants were tested. Die casting emissions were not tested. Therefore, we have no idea whether Kipp was “within a fraction of allowable emission levels” for small particulates and many of the other hazardous air pollutants they emit.

The allowable emissions levels in Kipp’s expired air pollution permit are no basis to judge if the surrounding neighborhood is safe. The discharge limits were established to meet the old air quality standards. All the stacks on Kipp’s roof were designed to comply with the 1971 air standard for PM. The DNR’s own analysis shows current permit limits are not sufficient to comply with modern air quality standards for fine particles or PM2.5. Die casting emissions factors are over two decades old.

The community has asked repeatedly over the years that Kipp more completely characterize die casting emissions and update die casting emissions factors. Given that several of Kipp’s EPA violations had to do with issues that would affect die casting emissions, it is problematic that die casting emissions were not part of the stack testing done for the NOV. We don’t know why, but Kipp’s lawyers likely negotiated them out of the agreement if they were ever on the table for consideration. Further, originally the EPA planned to test dioxins/furans to resolve this Notice of Violation. However, Kipp’s legal team talked them out of doing dioxin/furan tests some time in 2014 (based on MEJO communications with EPA).

Koblinski: “I approached the Goodman Center to see if they had an energy efficiency project that I could help them with and ultimately agreed to pay $80,000 towards their needed chiller upgrade…”  

MEJO Response: We think improving energy efficiency is very important, but this Goodman Supplemental Environmental Project (SEP) does nothing to reduce exposures to Kipp’s toxic pollution (as described above) among the children who play at Goodman just feet from the factory. Also, it makes it even more likely that Goodman leaders will not raise any questions about Kipp’s pollution. Madison-Kipp, its wealthy owner Reed Coleman, and/or the several foundations to which Mr. Coleman funnels his wealth, have supported the Goodman Community Center with funding and other types of support since it was located next to Kipp and before that when it was the Atwood Community Center. This is one reason the Goodman Center leaders do not raise concerns about Kipp’s pollution, and dismiss or ridicule those in the community who do raise these concerns. The Goodman SEP is, in effect, more hush money to Goodman. What a boon for Kipp—congratulations!

Meanwhile, the SEPs Kipp agreed to didn’t consider in any way the concerns and suggestions of many people in the Kipp neighborhood for over two decades. Since the 1990s, hundreds of Kipp neighbors have asked for more monitoring, better emissions and noise controls, and a variety of other actions to reduce or eliminate the noise, odors, and toxic pollution from Kipp. In most cases, their concerns have been dismissed or ignored by Kipp (and DNR).  

Koblinski: “The violations indicated in the NOV did not “expose residents and children at the center to harmful pollutants” as they were administrative in nature and we have always operated well within the limits of our permits (in fact less than 4% of our total allowable).

MEJO Response: As outlined above, the violations were much more than just “administrative” and likely did result in higher emissions of some hazardous air pollutants, which continue to be emitted from the factory at unknown levels. Close neighbors of Kipp, including many children, and children playing at the Goodman Center, are among the most exposed and the most vulnerable to these hazardous pollutants released from stacks and vents just feet away from where they live and play.  

Koblinski: “The EPA did not make a “surprise, unannounced visit to our facility,” rather the inaccuracies in our reporting were discovered through the standard annual reporting that we do to the EPA and subsequent information exchanges throughout 2012.”

MEJO Response: This EPA document about the Jan. 12, 2011 inspection of Kipp describes the inspection as “unannounced.”  We don’t think EPA would lie about this.  

Koblinski: Lastly, I would use this opportunity to indicate that we are progressing well on a number of fronts as we take responsibility for the unintended environmental impacts caused over previous decades.  

I won’t list all of the actions taken and completed as those are documented through various reports submitted to the WDNR and posted to their site.  Work still ahead of us includes:

– Some additional soil remediation (removal) work remains to be done in the storm water ‘bio-basin’ (Rain Garden) and adjacent bike path.  

– We will be bringing the Ground water Extraction and Treatment System GETS on line later this month to pump and filter PCE impacted groundwater.

– We are working with WDNR and EPA to resolve remaining PCB issues under our plant.  

We will, of course, continue to regularly monitor and verify our network of wells and probes to ensure there is no risk to public health.  

MEJO Response: Please share with the neighborhood and public the most recent documents about these activities—especially those regarding the continued removal of PCB contamination from the raingarden/bike path and also under the factory. What work remains to be done and why? Please share any available data.

A representative from the Madison/Dane Co Board of Health recently reported to the Madison Committee on the Environment that all the PCBs at Kipp have been remediated. Obviously, this is incorrect. Recent documents about these activities are not posted on the DNR website. People in the neighborhood, and the public officials who serve them, need to know about ongoing remediation of highly toxic soils going on right in the middle of where they live, work, and play (children are playing at a splash pad just feet from these PCB remediations!).

Sincerely,  

Tony Koblinski

President/CEO

Madison-Kipp Corp.

tkoblinski@madison-kipp.com

MEJO Response: Thanks, Mr. Koblinski! Drop us an email any time if you have further questions or comments.

Sincerely,

MEJO

info@mejo.us


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EPA fines Madison-Kipp for air violations; Goodman Center gets A/C in the deal!

EPA fines Madison-Kipp for air violations; Goodman Center gets A/C in the deal!
[ABOVE] The view of Madison-Kipp Corp. from the Goodman Community Center; PCBs are being removed from the rain garden in the foreground

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has fined Madison-Kipp Corporation for Clean Air Act violations from 2007 through 2012. While it could have been fined $37,500  per day for each violation, Kipp got away with paying a $35,000 fine, and agreeing to install energy-efficient windows in its factory and to pay for new air conditioning at the adjacent Goodman Community Center!

That’s right: a community center gets new air conditioning because a factory repeatedly violated the Clean Air Act. [This is not an Onion headline!]

From the EPA Administrative Order: “On behalf of the Goodman Community Center, a not-for-profit organization located in Madison, Wisconsin….respondent [Kipp] must…provide funding to replace, in whole or in part, a faulty and inefficient tandem chiller with a more energy-efficient unit…Respondent must spend at least $80,000 towards this….”

So Clean Air Act violations occurred for five years, affecting the Atwood neighborhood, exposing residents and children at the center to harmful pollutants, and the “penalty” is air conditioning for the center. WTF!?!

All the while, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources didn’t notice these Kipp air violations. If not for concerned residents asking for it, the EPA never would have made a surprise, unannounced visit to the Kipp factory and uncovered the problems.

The Clean Air Act violations agreements can be  can be found here:

EPA Administrative Order re: Madison-Kipp air violations (March 31, 2015)

EPA Administrative Order re: Madison-Kipp air violations (April 6, 2015)

 

 

 

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City to Lease Rain Garden to Polluter

City to Lease Rain Garden to Polluter

(High resolution version of above graphic here)

SUMMARY: The City of Madison wishes to extend a lease with Madison-Kipp Corp. through 2023 that will allow Kipp to control the rain garden it has polluted, continue to use part of the north parking lot (which it has also contaminated), and will give full credit towards its lease costs for a wooden fence that allegedly blocks sound. Meanwhile, people who live next to Kipp say that noise from the factory has been louder than ever, and often is the worst in the middle of the night. [1]

Given Kipp’s long history of polluting Starkweather Creek and Lake Monona through its unmonitored discharges into the City storm water drains (including one in the rain garden, where most of Kipp’s contaminated stormwater discharges are released), it’s curious that the City would now like to give Kipp control over this land.

DETAILS: The City of Madison has a long relationship with Madison-Kipp Corp. The city owns the land under the Kipp Fair Oaks factory and under the north parking lot at the Kipp Waubesa factory. Now the City wants to lease its heavily-polluted rain garden to Kipp for free (zero rent because of the full credit for the “sound blocking” fence).

Runoff from nearly the entire Kipp Waubesa factory property has been going into a City stormwater drain for many decades (a century?). In 2006, the City built the ill-fated rain garden where this pipe discharges, despite existing documentation of extensive PCE contamination throughout the Kipp site. This area was already leased to Kipp, so the City amended its lease, took back the land and gave Kipp a $900 lease credit. From the 2009 amended lease:

During the time of the recent construction of the new Goodman Community Center at 149 Waubesa Street, the City of Madison constructed a storm water management surface water retention facility adjacent to the East Rail Corridor Bike Path. The facility was constructed in a portion of the leased premises that the City leased to the Madison-Kipp Corporation (MKC) beginning in 1998. In order to correct the situation, it is necessary to amend the lease to remove that portion of the leased premises that the City reoccupied. The portion contains approximately 2,100 square feet and its removal equates to a permanent reduction of the annual rent of $900.

In 2012 and 2013, several toxic contaminants, including PCE, PCBs, PAHs and metals were discovered in rain garden soils (see the main graphic above here).  Soil PCB levels in some spots were many order of magnitude above DNR standards for direct contact. Several rounds of excavation have been done there, but the big question still remains: where did all this pollution come from?

MEJO has learned of a never-before disclosed Kipp factory drainage system that goes under the factory and leads to the stormwater drain and ditch (leading to Starkweather Creek, which eventually drains into Lake Monona). Historically, PCBs, PCEs, PAHs, dioxins, metals, and other unknown (unmeasured) chemicals from Kipp processes have flowed into this drainage system.

The City does not know the full extent of this drainage system and has not investigated what chemicals are currently draining into it from Kipp’s air vents/stacks and ongoing remediation projects–or what might be entering it from under the Kipp factory.

It has finally been made public that Kipp had a secret trench in its factory that drained into the City stormwater drain. EPA is now working to get Kipp to remediate the unbelievably high levels of PCBs under the factory. FYI: EPA still hasn’t settled with Kipp over its air pollution permit notice of violation. Perhaps the City should investigate the toxins going into the rain garden before it hands it over to Kipp.

City "rain garden" between Kipp and Goodman

City “rain garden” between Kipp and Goodman

Kipp has polluted this City land for a century (along with Kipp’s City-owned parking lot).  Why should the City allow Kipp to have control of public land that it has treated so badly?  Is there any evidence that Kipp can be a “good steward”of public lands? Since this land is adjacent to the City bike path and a community center, the City might be wise to keep control of it rather than allow a lessee with such a bad track record control it. Instead, this public rain garden will now become Kipp’s private property.And people who live along Waubesa and Marquette Streets, as well as those families who use the Goodman Community Center, not to mention the parents of all the children who will use the new splash pad next year (right next to the rain garden!), should know about this and have a chance to tell District 6 Alder Marsha Rummel and the City if they agree with the wisdom of giving Kipp control of more public land. There should be a public neighborhood meeting at the Goodman Center before the Madison City Council allows Kipp to lease the rain garden.

Addendum: The “sound blocking” wooden fence was supposed to be on the north boundary too (along the bike path, between Kipp and the Goodman Community Center. This wasn’t built. Here is the proposed location per the 2009 amended lease.

[1] Kipp and government agencies attribute this increased noise to the testing and construction of the groundwater remediation system. However, many people living on Marquette Street have been experiencing increased noises from Kipp since before this construction started. Also, the noise often goes all night long and people say they cannot sleep. Why does Kipp need to do this noisy work all night long?

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PHMDC Assures Public Goodman Splash Pad is Perfectly Safe Using Incorrect Numbers

PHMDC Assures Public Goodman Splash Pad is Perfectly Safe Using Incorrect Numbers

(After this story was posted, PHMDC corrected their numbers in the document linked to below)

On August 26 the Wisconsin DNR released a public update including an “Evaluation of the Potential Health Concerns Associated with the Construction of the Goodman Center Splash Pad” by Public Health Madison Dane County (PHMDC).

Unfortunately, the “Residual Contaminant Level” (RCL) table in the document is riddled with incorrect numbers and miscalculations. The RCLs listed are outdated and even some of the old numbers are incorrect (or have mixed up units–e.g., the old RCL for benzo(a)pyrene was .0088 mg/kg, not 8.8 mg/kg; other RCL numbers are also incorrect). Numbers in the “estimated increase in disease risk” column are miscalculated.

The table shows that contaminants levels found in soils at the Goodman Center were large orders of magnitude higher than DNR direct contact soil RCLs, but PHMDC concludes that “patrons of the water activity”—in other words, “small children”—will not be exposed to contaminated soils, dust, and sediment during “normal operation” of the splash pad. What about when the splash pad isn’t operating “normally?” What might “abnormal operation” of the splash pad entail? The document also asserts that the splash pad water tank, buried in contaminated soil and at times submerged in groundwater, will be “impermeable.” What?!?! Everybody knows that underground storage tanks always leak, sooner or later….

To be continued…

 

 

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More Alarming PCB Hotspots Along City Bike Path Next to Goodman Center; Public in the Dark

More Alarming PCB Hotspots Along City Bike Path Next to Goodman Center; Public in the Dark

Kipp’s Sludge Garden Saga continues… an Arcadis (Kipp’s consultants) report dated August 6, 2014 includes data generated in April and May of this year showing the highest PCB hotspots found to date–550 ppm and 1020 ppm–from soils excavated at the far west edge of the raingarden (see pg. 13 of above report), right next to where a Kipp storm drain pipe emptied contaminants into the raingarden area for decades. These levels are far higher than in previous rounds of excavation in the raingarden, which also revealed many PCB hotspots.

The highest PCB level found in recent excavations, 1020 ppm, is 1457 times the DNR’s industrial direct contact residual contaminant level (RCL) of 0.7 ppm and 5100 times the non-industrial (residential) RCL of 0.2 ppm.[1],[2]

Oddly, the Arcadis report does not mention the sources of the PCBs. Moreover, it does not state the depth of these samples, making it very difficult to assess what the past and current sources of the PCBs might be, how and where the contaminants might travel over time, and how likely it is that people will be exposed to them now or in the future in different contexts.

Though some soils in the raingarden area with the highest detections of PCB have been removed, soils in much of the area could not be excavated because of buried utility lines, and the full extent of the contamination remains unknown. Contaminated runoff from the northern part of the Kipp property continues to discharge from the stormwater pipe that drains into the raingarden, as Kipp removes/repaves parking lots and constructs the groundwater extraction system. Soils in the northern parking lot area, where most of this work is occurring, are among the most contaminated soils on the site.

The City of Madison land on which these hotspots were found is next to a heavily used city bike path along which many children bike and play every day (see here and here) and just across from the ill-advised Goodman Center children’s splash pad, currently under construction. Throughout the excavations, no signs have ever been posted to let people know what is going on and to keep children and pets away.

To date, this PCB data has not been shared with the public by Kipp, DNR, or another agency. It is not posted on the DNR website and it is not in the Hawthorne Library.[3] Why not?

 

[1] Though government agencies are using the industrial RCL, given that this is public land feet away from a public bike path and a community center, the lower, more protective non-industrial (residential) RCL should be used.

[2] Four samples analyzed just last week to the west of these hotspots under Kipp’s driveway (leased from the City of Madison) showed much lower levels of PCBs, but consultant reports again do not include the depths of the samples, or even maps of their locations, making it difficult to assess the importance of these findings.

[3] Several years ago, people in the Kipp neighborhood asked DNR to place hard copies of critical Kipp and government documents relevant to Kipp’s soil and groundwater pollution (including consultant reports as well as DNR and other agency reports and communications, etc) in the Hawthorne Library for people who do not have internet access. Although there are several large Arcadis reports in the library, the recent raingarden data is not there and to date none of important Kipp-related DNR and other agency documents have ever been placed there other than a few very old DNR reports on Kipp’s site investigations.

 

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A “Healthy and Safe Place” for “Good Clean Fun”?

A “Healthy and Safe Place” for “Good Clean Fun”?

Is this a safe place for children to frolic in a splash pad? Here are some of the toxic contaminants and safety risks not visible in the above photo…

A post in today’s Cap Times online raises important questions about whether the children’s splash pad planned at the Goodman Community Center will be a “healthy and safe place” for “good clean fun,” as the center’s Executive Director Becky Steinhoff assured us it will be in the May/June issue of the Eastside News.

Adding to questions raised in previous posts, there is a glaring omission in considerations about the safety of this location for a splash pad. Trucks carrying chlorine, toxic chemicals, and hazardous wastes to and from Kipp—and spewing hazardous diesel fumes—will rumble just feet past the children’s splash pad many times a day, every day.

Aluminum die casting is inherently toxic and dangerous, and Kipp has a lousy health and safety record. As we outlined in a previous post, between 1998 and Feb. 2014, the Madison Fire Department/EMS (emergency medical services) made 172 calls to Kipp for fires, explosions, accidents, and/or worker health problems and injuries.[1]

Kipp uses, stores, and transports chlorine, in addition to numerous other highly toxic chemicals. Chlorine is a highly toxic gas that can cause severe health problems (including death) to people exposed to high enough levels. Severe health effects from chlorine inhalation can occur within minutes—well before HazMat teams can get to the scene. The highest potential for such a release near Kipp is during the transport of chlorine; for details, see Kipp’s “Hazardous Materials Incident Initial Response Guidelines.” . With all the trucks going in and out of Kipp for well installation, remediation, etc., the chances of such an accident have likely increased in recent years.[2]

What will happen if there is a chlorine truck accident involving a chlorine release next to the splash pad while children are playing there? What plan does Goodman Community Center have in place for such an incident at its facility? Not long ago, community members asked Goodman Center staff this question and they had never heard of such a plan; they were clearly unprepared. How will the center staff handle such a chlorine or other toxic material accident next to a crowded splash pad? How will kids at an outdoor splash pad “shelter-in-place” if a chlorine spill happens 50 feet away?

[1] The actual number of fires, accidents and injuries is probably higher than this, since Kipp likely tries to avoid calling the Fire Department unless the accidents reach a certain severity level.

[2] Emergency Planning and Community-Right-To-Know (EPCRA)

MKC uses, stores, transports, and releases many highly hazardous chemicals, and is required to follow Emergency Planning and Community-Right-To-Know laws—see here for federal regulations and here for Dane County. Hazardous chemicals at Kipp include chlorine, propane, sodium hydroxide, nitrogen, fluorides, molten aluminum, fuel oils, lubricants and many more. The use, storage, and transport of chlorine are among the most potentially dangerous situations at and around Kipp. According to the “Hazardous Materials Incident Initial Response Guidelines” for Madison Kipp, “the worst-case scenario would involve chlorine being released directly to the outside of the facility during transport.”

Chlorine’s health effects: Permissible Exposure Level–1 ppm; detectable odor threshold–over 1 ppm; 3-5 ppm–slight irritation of the nose and upper respiratory tract; 5-8 ppm–irritation of the respiratory tract and eyes; 10 ppm– immediately dangerous to life and health; 15-20 ppm–immediate severe irritation of the respiratory tract, intense coughing and choking; 30 ppm–shortness of breath, chest pain, possibly nausea and vomiting; 40-60 ppm–development of chemical bronchitis and fluid in the lungs, chemical pneumonia. Prolonged exposure over 50 ppm will cause unconsciousness and death.

Two types of “vulnerability zones” for chlorine accidents at Kipp were modeled in Kipp’s Haz Mat Guideline document. One is the area in which chlorine levels could reach 1/10 of the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health)—or the level that “poses a threat of exposure to airborne contaminants when that exposure is likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment.” The 1/10 factor is added to protect especially vulnerable people, such as those with respiratory disease or illness. The IDLH for chlorine is 10ppm so the 1/10 IDLH is 1ppm. An alternative vulnerability zone based on ERPG-2 (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines), or “the maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed that nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to one hour without experiencing or developing irreversible or other serious health effects or symptoms which could impair an individual’s ability to take protective action.” The ERPG-2 for chlorine is 3 ppm.

Vulnerability zones for chlorine releases are: 3.1 miles at 1 ppm (1/10 IDLH), 1.9 miles at 3 ppm (ERPG-2) “in the worst case scenario, dangerous or deadly levels of chlorine contamination may reach a distance of between .1 and .25 miles downwind of the source within a matter of minutes following the initial release.” Later, the document states that “The lead time for a HAZMAT incident could be from 15-40 minutes. As a result, this short time may not allow for a safe evacuation…An evacuation under these circumstances may expose the population to dangerous toxic chemicals and the decision may be made to shelter-in-place.” The document then lists 11 “shelter-in-place” recommended instructions.

**********

Do you live in the Kipp Neighborhood? If there is a chlorine accident at Kipp or an accident involving a chlorine truck on a street in the neighborhood:

-How will you know? Is there any system in place to immediately notify you and others in the neighborhood?

-Do you/your family know what the “shelter-in-place” steps are? Do staff at Goodman Community Center/Lowell School?

-Is the community prepared? Are people near Kipp even aware that the potential exists for such an accident?

If you live in the Kipp neighborhood, contact your elected officials, public health agencies, Madison Fire Department and OSHA, with questions. Ask them to look into whether Kipp is following EPCRA laws. Ask them to initiate a public meeting to help prepare residents, schools, and community centers for a chlorine and/or other hazardous chemical accident at or around Kipp. Always include your street address when contacting your political representatives.

Madison Alder Marsha Rummel: 608-772-4555, district6@cityofmadison.com

Senator Fred Risser: (608)266-1627, sen.risser@legis.wisconsin.gov

Representative Chris Taylor: (608) 266-5342, Rep.Taylor@legis.wisconsin.gov

John Hausbeck (Epidemiologist, Madison Dane County Public Health): 608.243.0331, JHausbeck@publichealthmdc.com

Henry Nehls-Lowe (Epidemiologist, Department of Health Services): 608-266-3479, Henry.NehlsLowe@dhs.wisconsin.gov

Dave Bursack, Dane County Local Emergency Planning Committee: 608-266-9051,

Madison Fire Department: 608-266-4420, fire@cityofmadison.com

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Madison Office): (608) 441-5388

 

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